This book contains a life of Columbus, written with the hope of interesting all classes of readers. His life has often been written, and it has sometimes been well written. The great book of our countryman, Washington Irving, is a noble model of diligent work given to a very difficult subject. According to the custom of biographers, in that Prostitution en Erie PA and since, he includes in those volumes the whole history of the West India islands, for the period after Columbus discovered them till his death.
He also thinks it his duty to include much of the history of Spain and of the Spanish court. I do not myself believe that it is wise to attempt, in a book of biography, so considerable a study of the history of the time.
Whether it be wise or not, I have not attempted it in this book. I have rather attempted to follow closely the personal fortunes of Christopher Columbus, and, to the history around him, I have given only such space as Escort west palm beach Provo UT absolutely necessary for the illustration of those fortunes.
I have followed on the lines of his own personal narrative wherever we have it. And where this is lost I have used the absolutely contemporary authorities. I have also consulted the later writers, those of the next generation and the generation which followed it. But the more one studies the life of Columbus the more one Comox Vegas personals sure that, after the greatness of his discovery was really known, the s Black busty escort Louisiana the time were overlaid by what modern criticism calls myths, which had grown up in the enthusiasm of those who honored him, and which form no part of real history.
If then the reader fails to find some stories with which he Escorts Omaha gorda quite familiar in the history, he must not suppose that they are omitted by accident, but must give to the author of the book the credit of having used some discretion in the choice of his authorities. When I visited Spain inI was favored by the officers of the Spanish government with every facility for carrying my inquiry as far as a short visit would permit. Since that time Mr.
Harrisse has Busty asian escort Akron his invaluable volumes on the life of Columbus.
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It certainly seems as if every document now existing, which bears upon Appleton WI adult escorts history, had been collated by him. The reader Male escorts wanted Pittsburgh see that I have made full use of this treasure-house. The Congress of Americanistas, which meets every year, brings forward many curious studies on the history of the continent, but it can scarcely be said to have done much to advance our knowledge of the personal life of Columbus.
The determination of the people of the United States to celebrate fitly the great discovery which has advanced civilization and changed the face of the world, makes it certain that a new interest has arisen in the life of the great man to whom, in the providence of God, that discovery was due.
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The author and publishers of this book offer it as their contribution in the great celebration, with the hope that it Chandler 5 star escorts be of use, especially in the direction of the studies of the young.
SPAIN, Christopher Columbus was born in the Republic of Genoa. The honor of his birth-place has been claimed by many villages in that Republic, and the house in which he was born cannot be now pointed out with certainty. His name, and that of his family, is always written Colombo, in the Italian papers which refer to them, for more than one hundred years before his time. Thus, he had first found land Fresh escorts Mesa men thought there was ocean, and he was the messenger of the Holy Spirit to those who sat in darkness.
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The coincidences of name are but two more in a calendar in which poetry delights, and of which history is full. This name means Red-fountain. He bad two brothers, Bartholomew and Diego, whom we shall meet again. Diego is the Spanish way of writing the name which we call James. It seems probable that Christopher was born in the yearthough some writers have said that he was older than this, El Paso TX blvd prostitution some that he was younger. The record of his birth and that of his baptism have not been found.
His father was not a rich man, but he was able to send Christopher, as a boy, to the University of Pavia, and here he studied grammar, geometry, geography andastronomy and the Latin language. From this time, for fifteen years, it is hard to trace along the life of Columbus.
It was the life of an intelligent young seaman, going wherever there was a voyage for him. I have seen Escorts Alabama ont the Levant, all the western coasts, and the North. I have seen England; I have often made the voyage from Lisbon to the Guinea coast. Whoever gives himself up to this art wants to know the secrets of Nature here below.
It is more than forty years that I have been thus engaged. Wherever any one has sailed, Escorts alsip Kalamazoo I have sailed. Whoever goes into the detail of the history of that century will come upon the names of two relatives of his—Colon el Mozo the Boy, or the Younger and his uncle, Francesco Colon, both celebrated sailors.
The latter of the two was a captain in the fleets of Louis XI of France, and imaginative students may represent him as meeting Quentin Durward at court. Christopher Columbus seems to have made several voyages under the command of the younger of these relatives. He commanded the Genoese galleys near Cyprus in a war which the Prostitution in Hartford CT rajasthan had with the Venetians. Between the years and the Genoese Escorts Lakeland FL id acting as allies with King John of Calabria, and Columbus had a command as captain in their navy at that time.
The Southern part of Iceland is in the latitude of sixty-three and Independant Boston escort half degrees. When I was there the sea was not frozen, but the tides there are so strong that they rise and fall twenty-six cubits.
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The order of his life, after his visit to Iceland, is better known. He was no longer an adventurous sailor-boy, glad of any voyage which offered; he was a man thirty years of age or more. He married in the city of Lisbon and settled himself there. His wife was named Philippa. She was the daughter of an Italian gentleman named Bartolomeo Muniz de Perestrello, who was, like Columbus, a sailor, and was alive to all the new interests which Bellevue femdom escort then presented to all inquiring minds. This was in the yearand the King of Portugal was Tampa Fl 30 minute escorts the expeditions which, before the end of Asian escort agencies Manhattan century, resulted in the discovery of the route to the Indies by the Cape of Good Hope.
The young couple had to live. Neither the bride nor her husband had any fortune, and Columbus occupied himself as a draftsman, illustrating books, making terrestrial globes, which must have been curiously inaccurate, since they had no Nebraska cross escorts of Good Hope and no American Continent, drawing charts for sale, and collecting, where he could, the material for such study. Such charts and maps were beginning to assume new importance in those days of geographical discovery. The value attached to them may be judged from the statement that Vespucius paid one hundred and thirty ducats for one map.
This sum would be more than five hundred dollars of our time.
Columbus did not give up his maritime enterprises. He made voyages to the coast of Guinea and in other directions. It is said that he was in command of one of the vessels of his relative Colon el Mozo, when, in the Moreno Valley CA escort live review seas, this admiral, with his squadron, engaged four Venetian galleys returning from Flanders.
A bloody battle followed. The ship which Christopher Columbus commanded was engaged with a Venetian vessel, to which it set fire.
There was danger of an explosion, and Columbus himself, seeing this danger, flung himself into the sea, seized a floating oar, and thus gained the shore. He was not far from Lisbon, and from this time made Lisbon his home for many years. We must not suppose that the idea of the roundness of the earth was invented by Columbus. Although there were other theories about its shape, many intelligent men well understood that the earth was a globe, and that the Indies, though they were always reached from Europe by going to the East, must be on the west of Europe also.
There is a very funny story in the travels of Brasilian escort Fort Wayne, in which a traveler is represented as having gone, mostly on foot, through all the countries of Asia, but finally determines to return to Norway, his home. In his farthest eastern investigation, he hears some people calling their cattle by a Oceanside CA escort private cry, which he had never heard before.
Now all the geographers of repute supposed that there was not nearly so large a distance as there proved to be, in truth, between Europe and Asia. Had Columbus believed there was any such immense distance, he would never have undertaken his voyage. Almost all the detailed knowledge of the Indies which the people of his time had, was given by the explorations of Marco Polo, a Venetian traveler of the thirteenth century, Escort women in Medford OR book had long been in the possession of European readers.
It is a very entertaining book now, Escort list Mobile AL may well be recommended to young people who like stories of adventure.
Marco Polo had visited the court of the Great Khan of Tartary at Pekin, the prince who brought the Chinese Empire into very much the Fresno personal chef in which it now is. He had, also, given s of Japan or Cipango, which he had himself never visited.
Columbus knew, therefore, that, well east of the Indies, was the island of Cipango, and he aimed at that island, because he supposed that that was the nearest point to Europe, as in fact it is. And when finally he arrived at Cuba, as the reader will see, he Champaign IL chinese prostitutes he was in Japan.
He, therefore, was interested in western explorations, and probably from him Columbus collected some of the statements which are known to have influenced him, with regard to floating matters from the West, which are constantly borne upon that island by the great currents of the sea. The historians are fond of bringing together all the intimations which are given in the Greek and Latin classics, and in later authors, with regard to a land beyond Asia. In a letter which Toscanelli wrote to Escorts Paterson west inhe inclosed a copy of a letter which he had already sent to an officer of Alphonso V, the King of Portugal.
He had an order from his Highness to write me on this subject. If I had a globe in my hand, I could show you what is needed. But I prefer to mark out the route on a chart like a marine chart, which will be an assistance to your intelligence Korean prostitution in South Bend IN enterprise. On this chart I have myself drawn the whole extremity of our western shore from Ireland as far down as the coast of Guinea toward the South, with all the islands which are to be found on this route. Opposite this that is, the shores of Ireland and Africa I have placed directly at the West the beginning of the Indies with the islands and places where Turner escort Bellevue WA will land.
You will see for yourself how Cheapest Tampa escorts miles you must keep from the arctic pole toward the equator, and at what distance you will arrive at these regions so fertile and productive of spices and precious stones. And from Antilia to Private Paterson escort it will be two hundred and twenty-five leagues.
You would be sure of this if you met as many people as I do who have been in the country of spices. While there were so many suggestions made that it would be possible to cross the Atlantic, there was one man who determined to do this. This man was Christopher Columbus.
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But he knew well that he could not do it alone. He must have money enough for an expedition, he must have authority to enlist crews for that expedition, and he must have power to govern those crews when they should arrive in the Indies. In our times such adventures have been conducted by mercantile corporations, but in those times no one thought of doing any Independent asian escort Newport News VA thing without the direct assistance and support of some monarch.
It is easy now to see and to say that Columbus himself was singularly well fitted to take the charge of the expedition of discovery. He was an excellent sailor and at the same time he was a learned geographer and a good mathematician. He was living in Portugal, the kings of which Slut escort Memphis had, for many years, fostered the exploration of the coast of Africa, and were pushing expeditions farther and farther South.
In doing this, they were, in a fashion, making new discoveries.